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Multiphysical Simulation Tool for Manufacturing Chains and Life Cycles of Parts


Concepts of MUSIMAP

Parts are produced generally through a manufacturing chain consisted of several processes, such as casting, forming, heat treating, cutting, and grinding. These processes utilize skillfully micro structural evolutions and material characteristics changes in parts, which are induced by temperature changes, diffusions of elements, external loads, chemical and physical treatments, etc. Since manufacturing techniques are very sophisticated, problems, such as distortion, excessive stresses, etc., happen especially in case of the newly designed parts, for which past experiences may not be effective.

MUSIMAP, Multiphysical Simulation Tool for Manufacturing Chains and Life Cycles of Parts, has been developed to solve the above mentioned problems. Multiphysical phenomena in parts, such as diffusion, heat conduction, electric current-potential, stress-strain, and so on, can be simulated considering microstructural evolutions by the system. Simulated results are temperature, concentration of elements, volume fraction of phases, distortion, residual stress, strains, and so on, which are induced in parts during processes. Concepts of MUSIMAP is summarized schematically in Figure 1.


Figure 1 Concepts of MUSIMAP


Continuous simulation for manufacturing chains and operations of parts


Multiphysical coupling with microstructural evolutions


Prediction of distortions and residual stresses for improving the reliability of parts














Note: Fluid flow analysis has not been implemented. Although the electro-magnetic function is achieved by coupling with other commercial software, the electric current and potential analysis will be performed in the system.

Parts are assembled into machines and equipments, and are used until their end of life. Various kinds of loads will be applied during their operations, and then defects may be induced especially in their microstructures. It is necessary to grasp fully phenomena produced during not only manufacturing but also operational processes for improving their reliability. MUSIMAP can simulate phenomena in an operational status continuously based on the results at the end of a manufacturing chain. For example, it is possible to predict how operational loads affect microstructures and residual stresses in finished parts. Also phenomena relating to fatigue, corrosion, etc. in their life will be simulated.

Simulation technique

MUSIMAP simulates multiphysical phenomena in parts using the coupling analysis based on the Finite Element Procedure as shown in Figure 2. Much information such as temperature, concentrations, stress, strains, etc. is exchanged among numerical modules in each time step. This approach considers microstructural evolutions like phase transformation, recovery, grain growth, etc.

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of the MUSIMAP system






















Since the numerical modules require the corresponding characteristics data and material properties, their collection and prediction are regarded as the works of the MUSIMAP project. Physical properties of multiphase materials are estimated by the mixture law.


We have not explained fully the mechanism of phenomena induced in parts during manufacturing processes and its life. For example, the origin of distortion and residual stress in nitrided stainless steels was not clarified until recently. This reason may be thought that researchers could not use simulation software incorporating both nitriding models and the stress-strain analysis.


Although there are major simulation software for each field, MUSIMAP is being to be developed for resolving the above mentioned outstanding problems as a flexible research platform. By integrating microstructural modeling and continuum analysis more tightly, MUSIMAP will become a more powerful tool. Also MUSIMAP has been designed based on the concept to be used by experts of simulation at the design and manufacturing sections, although the research use is emphasized in the above.


MUSIMAP can be applied to simulate heat treating and surface treating processes. Heat treating processes are such as carburized quenching, induction hardening, nitriding, etc. On the other hand, surface treating involves plating, PVD, CVD, and thermal spray and so on. Also MUSIMAP can be coped with other manufacture processes, such as forming, welding, cutting, and grinding, although there are restrictions to model the processes currently.

System and specification


MUSIMAP contains a solver and an interface program for some commercial pre-post processers, which are available for the PC Windows. Electric-magnetic and fluid flow analysis modules are not included, but electric current and potential analysis will be used in the system. 


MUSIMAP uses certain subroutines of the ADINA 84 Version under the license agreement with ADINA R&D Inc.